Ollantaytambo
Their Blocks, Stones & Notches.

   

On top of a mountain at Ollantaytambo in Peru are huge stone blocks that look like they have been machined. The notches and long outstanding ridges are interesting, what function did they have; decoration? How were they cut? Were the blocks cut back by some method to leave these features as outcrops, a great deal of effort – for what?

Where they painted? There are a lot of questions but few answers.

Ollantaytambo can be reached by road and rail from Cusco, it’s the last stop on the train before Machu Pichu.

In the town square there is a statue of Atahualpa the last Inka king murdered by the Conquistadores. Outside the town the River Urubamba flows past and it was nearby that the last battle between the Incas and the Spanish was fought, resulting in a stalemate with the Spanish never going any further – they NEVER REACHED MACHU-PICHU.

Atahualpa
 

 

 Interlocking stones at Ollantaytambo with niches and notches.

 

Display alcoves? Something was most likely to have been placed into each one; could this have been Inca gold artwork? Or something simpler, perhaps flowers?

* * * * *

Article below is from WORLD-MYSTERIES.Com

Introduction

At the northern end of the Sacred Valley, Ollantaytambo is rare if not unique in Peru. 
Ollantaytambo is a massive citadel located 50 kilometers from Machu Picchu. The citadel served as both a temple and a fortress. At some time unknown, and for reasons unknown, work mysteriously stopped on this huge project.

Photograph courtesy of SacredSites.com

Inca terraces (left) and megalithic wall (right) at pre-Inca site of Ollantaytambo.


Photograph courtesy of SacredSites.com


Mysterious Pre-Inca megalithic stonework at Ollantaytambo

Stone Technology

The Sun Temple (above) that was constructed with huge red porphyry (pink granite) boulders. The stone quarry is named Kachiqhata (Salt Slope) and is located about 4 km (2.5 miles) away on the other side of the valley, by the upper side of the opposite south-western mountains. The boulders were carved partially in the quarries, and taken down to the valley's bottom. In order to cross the river Quechuas constructed an artificial channel parallel to the natural river bed that served for deviating the river's water according to conveniences. Therefore, while that water flowed through one channel the other was dry, thus stones could be taken to the other side of the valley. More over, the boulders were transported to the upper spot where the temple is erected using the inclined plane that is something like a road which silhouette is clearly seen from the valley's bottom. They had the help of log rollers or rolling stones as wheels, South-American cameloids' leather ropes, levers, pulleys, and the power of hundreds and even thousands of men. Today, on the way from the quarry to the temple there are dozens of enormous stones that people know as " tired stones" because it is believed that they could never be transported to their destination; those stones are the reason why some authors claim that the Sun Temple was unfinished when the Spanish invasion happened.


Massive, multi-sided blocks were precisely fitted together in interlocking 
patterns in order to withstand the disastrous effects of earth quakes.

Scientists speculate that the masonry process might have worked like this: after carving the desired shape out of the first boulder and fitting it in place, the masons would somehow suspend the second boulder on scaffolding next to the first one. They would then have to trace out a pattern on the second boulder in order to plan the appropriate jigsaw shape that would fit the two together. In order to make a precise copy of the first boulder's edges, the masons might have used a straight stick with a hanging plum-bob to trace its edges and mark off exact points for carving on the second boulder. After tracing out the pattern, they would sculpt the stone into shape, pounding it with hand-sized stones to get the general shape before using finger-size stones for precision sanding. Admittedly, this entire technique is merely scientific speculation. The method might have worked in practice but that doesn't mean this is how the ancient Quechua stonemasons did it.

"How were such titanic blocks of stone brought to the top of the mountain from the quarries many miles away? How were they cut and fitted? How were they raised and put in place? Now one knows, no one can even guess. There are archaeologists, scientists, who would have us believe that the dense, hard andesite rock was cut, surfaced and faced by means of stone or bronze tools. Such an explanation is so utterly preposterous that it is not even worthy of serious consideration. No one ever has found anywhere any stone tool or implement that would cut or chip the andesite, and no bronze ever made will make any impression upon it."

A. Hyatt & Ruth Verrill ----America's Ancient Civilizations

Jean-Pierre Protzen thinks the Verrill’s were wrong. He went to Cuzco and showed how river rocks could be used as hammers to pound stones into the desired shape.

"It appears that the Inca technique of fitting the blocks together was based largely on trial and error. It is a laborious method, particularly if one considers the size of some of the huge stones at Sacsahuaman or Ollantaytambo. What should be kept in mind, however, is that time and labour power were probably of little concern to the Incas, who did not have a European notion of time and had plenty of tribute labour from conquered peoples at their disposal."

Jean-Pierre Protzen ---Scientific American ---Feb. 1986


Was this monolith carved with stone tools?

Eric Von Daniken, in his series of books beginning with Chariots of the Gods theorized that the Andean stone-works were build by Alien/Gods who visited the earth long ago, bringing civilization to primitive man. The scientific community simply snickered.
Whatever one thinks of his theories, he brought to the public an awareness of the many ancient monuments on earth that seem to defy rational explanation.

Everybody who has traveled to Egypt, Mesopotamia, South America and many ancient places has seen it: the astonishing craftsmanship of these ancient stoneworkers. The precision fit of large stone blocks is eminent in both the Old and New World. It is hardly imaginable, that all of this should have been done by pure manual work alone. This very interesting link, Ancient Stone Technology, also  includes theories of Professor Davidovits from the Geopolymer Institute in France.
In short, his theory is that the 2 million blocks of limestone that make up the core of the pyramid of Chufu (Cheops), have not been cut into shape, but the limestone was solved in water, brought to the building place in small portions and then the blocks were cast in situ.  Even more interesting are his ideas on the precision-fit Inca walls: He puts forward a technique to soften the stone by use of acid plant extracts!
Another interesting website is STONE TECHNOLOGY. The ancient Egyptians were masters in working with stone. These pages document photographic evidence, historical research and contemporary debates on stone technology. Topics include predynastic stonewares, straight saws, circular saws, tube drilling and lathes - Photos, Research Papers and Newsgroup Debate Summaries.

More about Inca Stone Technology>>


Aramu Muru

Another similar in nature megalithic structure is Aramu Muru near the Lake Titicaca.

Lake Titicaca, on the borders of Peru and Bolivia, is where Inca legends say life on Earth was first created by Viracocha. In the center of the lake is the Island of the Sun, with an ancient, sacred temple. Nearby is Sillustani, where mysterious burial towers called chulpas were once plated with gold and held the remains of Inca royalty.

A few miles away is Aramu Muru’s Portal, a doorway-shaped niche in a stone outcropping, located in a region known as the Valley of the Spirits. The local villagers who walked with us refused to come close to the portal. They tell stories about people disappearing through the solid rock.


Photograph courtesy of SacredSites.com

Mysterious giant stone sculpture of Aramu Muru, north of Chucuito, Peru.

 LAGONDWANALAND comment: looking at the rock formation it appears by judging the strata fault lines that they cut back and faced the rock outcrop. Its interesting that the uncut rocks have a similar formation to those in the buildings, i.e. emulating nature? Or did the natural form provide the insight to the builders?


BOOKS

Inca Architecture and Construction at Ollantaytambo
by Jean-Pierre Protzen, Robert Batson (Illustrator)

In this book, Protzen describes and interprets the archaeological complex of Ollantaytambo, discovers temporal and functional links among its components, uncovers the planning and design criteria that governed its layout and architecture, and compiles all that has been written about the site.

It is a modern-day mystery how the Inca, who did not have iron tools or knowledge of the wheel, mined and transported stones and dressed and fitted them in remarkable structures. Jean-Pierre Protzen has spent much of the past decade investigating the quarrying and stonecutting techniques of the Inca, and problems of Inca construction practices. His work is based principally on observation, careful measurements of structures, and experiments using stones and tools the Inca stonemasons would have used. Ollantaytambo, probably the best-preserved Inca town, offers an ideal laboratory with its well-thought-out site plans, its intimate integration of the built form with the natural environment, the unity of its architecture, and the sheer perfection of its cut-stone masonry. Offering the only extensive analysis of Inca construction practices, Protzen describes and interprets the archaeological complex of Ollantaytambo, discovers temporal and functional links among its components, uncovers the planning and design criteria that governed its layout and architecture, and compiles all that has been written about the site.

The Secret of the Incas - Myth, Astronomy, and the War Against Time

Step by step, Sullivan pieces together the hidden esoteric tradition of the Andes to uncover the tragic secret of the Incas, a tribe who believed that, if events in the heavens could influence those on earth, perhaps the reverse could be true. Anyone who reads this book will never look at the ruins of the Incas, or at the night sky, the same way again. Illustrations. (Note: This text refers to an out of print or unavailable edition of this title.)

 LAGONDWANALAND:

 

 

 

 Misty Machu Pichu

  

It’s quite probable that the stones were rendered over with a coating and if so none of this intricate interlocking would have been visible.

But the way the interlocking served a very useful function, commensurate with the labour requires to individually hew, cut and fix each separate stone into place, such a building method was earthquake proof!

Sacsahuaman – near Cuscu

Common to many of the ‘Inca’ sites- stone blocks with notches?

Was this stone fortress here before the Incas? 

What could the purpose of the notches be? One speculator proposed that due to working the stone, the Inca or the Maya or whoever, respected the Earth spirit – Pachamama within the stone and left the top ‘notch’ exposed, so leaving a part that was untouched, left as it originally was, maintaining the spiritual link to the Earth.?

But then why leave other stones without their notches?

It requires a huge amount of effort to match each individual stone to be tailored to fit its neighbours – exactly. And when you consider the extra effort that must have been needed to lower the surrounding surface area by chiselling? Grinding down the surface all around the notches, maybe that’s why they (maybe) only did a few selected blocks, some say they had the time and the manpower… even so Why?

Were these notches linked to a message, a statement i.e. linked to the still unbroken indeschyferal language of the Inca ‘Quipu/Khipu’ knots in string messages that formed the only ‘written’ language of the Incas… and was this passed down from their own ancestors?

Quipu/Khipu – Getting Knotted?

 

 

The top part of ‘The Fortress’ with its towers was demolished by the Spanish, but the base stones were too much for them.

The Temple of the Sun and the Moon in Cuscu.

Discovered bricked up and covered over by the Spanish inside the CUSCU CATHEDERAL after it collapsed in an earthquake.

Inkan construction – slopping interlocking blocks = earthquake proofed.

The Spanish cathedral has fallen down in several earthquakes even after repetitive re-constructions!

Tiahuanacu / Tiwanaku

Bolivia: a short drive out from LaPaz


Famous location of the ‘GATE OF THE SUN.

Our guide told us that the Gate was put up into its current location – suggested by the president; so its unlikely that it is in its original place.

What is not obvious at the site is the fact that once there was a huge pyramid located here (an earth mound is all that remains of it). It was totally de-constructed, demolished by the Spanish extracting the metal bars that held many blocks together. The blocks were taken away to build several local churches and cathedrals (in LaPaz). The Spanish went on to wreck the entire location. Some gigantic blocks were too huge to remove at nearby ‘Puma Punka’.


 Gold –  Copper alloy: 
Tumbaga ?

“The gold of Peru is already famous in the world, and the silver from the mines in Potosi in Bolivia was a rich fountain of wealth which drove forward the Spanish Empire. Next to the mountain of silver in Potosi there is another mountain of tin, which is also a rare metal not found in many places in the world.
But the metal which puzzled people most of all, was Plato's description of "orichalcum" since it was the second most valuable metal then known, it could be polished and "sparkled like fire" and there were mines of it throughout the island.
R.G.Bury considered it might have been "mountain copper" but in fact a natural alloy of gold and copper matching Plato's description exists in the Andes where it is called Tumbaga.
Not only that, but when the gold/copper alloy is heated then the object immersed in a special solution, the copper disolves from the surface to leave an object with the appearance of pure gold. The object can then be polished to consolidate the gold atoms on the surface and further enhance the sparkling, golden appearance”.

From J.M.Allen’s website suggesting that in ancient times ‘Atlantis’ was located in Bolivia.  


 Cut and dressed blocks that look very modern. And what about the drilled holes!

Peru

Gallery

Video

 
 
                                                         lagondwanaland.com